Smart Watches

Design

The first thing that people look at would likely be the watch body. Is it too bulky, does it look cool and fashionable? The ideal body should be suitable for both casual and formal wear. For example, the Pebble with its nice clean sporty look would blend well sports attire but might look a bit out of place when worn with a suit and tie.

Most guys do not mind larger watches, but some ladies do. Too much bulk to the watch makes it one chunky thing on the wrist that appeals to no one. The difference in watch size could mean that more goodies can be crammed into it.

The watch face, like the body, should be able to match different dressing needs as well. This is easier as the watch face can be changed with the press of a button. So this is something that the watchmakers or third party developers will need to take note of. While the watch body can have a general design that fits most dressing needs, the watch face should match a particular theme. A classy formal watch faces for more formal occasions to large sporty display for sporting needs; there should be enough watch faces to appeal to different users and their needs.

Last but not least, the watch strap. Just like the two other parts mentioned, the watch strap should be able to fit most dressing situations, and there are two possible ways to do this. The first way would be similar to the design fundamentals of the watch body such that the watch strap would look good whether it is worn with casual or more formal wear.

A second option would be for the strap to be easily replaceable. While the Pebble and Agent use standard 22mm watch straps that are easily changed with a small screwdriver, this might still be a bit too troublesome for some, especially if you change straps often or are in a rush.

Functionality and reliability

Firstly, what should the screen be? A touchscreen, standard LCD or e-ink display? Each option has its benefits and disadvantages and affects several key considerations of a smartwatch, like design, functionality and power consumption.

A small screen would also mean that you cannot display a lot of information.

Having said that, a touchscreen would add to the usability of the watch compared to pressing buttons to scroll and select. Besides, with touch screen smart phones being so ubiquitous now, this might be something that people expect. However, this increase in usability is balanced off by an increase in power consumption.

Notifications are a critical component of the smartwatch value proposition. For a start, they must be reliable and pushed to the user as required. If notifications are regularly missing, the user will not trust the watch and thus be required to continue checking their phones, defeating the purpose of the watch. Moreover, notifications must be informative and accessible.

Digital Watches

The inventor of the very first digital pocket watch had been the Austrian engineer known by Josef Pallweber who became well-known for creating this particular device in the year 1883. This watch consisted of a couple of windows within an enamel dial rather than a conventional dial and the hours as well as the minutes were actually visible through it on rotating discs. However, the second hand remained unoriginal. This mechanism invented by Josef Pallweber was already in the marketplace by 1885 and it was used by companies such as IWC and Cortébert which actually contributed to the subsequent commercial success of both of these companies. By the 1920s the principles of the functioning of Pallweber’s watch appeared in lots of wristwatches and are still used at present.

This very idea was also used by the Plato watches but with a much different layout. These timepieces actually featured a glass cylinder along with a column inside and compact digital cards were affixed to it which had numbers printed on them. In fact, these numbers flipped as the time passed. In 1904, these Plato watches were introduced by the Ansonia Clock Company at the St. Louis World Fair. This particular clock design was patented by Eugene Fitch of New York in 1903. D.E. Protzmann, as well as others, registered the earliest patent intended for a digital alarm clock in the United States in 1956. One more digital clock was also patented by Protzmann as well as his co-workers in the year 1970 and it was believed to make use of a minimal number of moving components. A cam gear along with an electric motor regulated the movement, while a couple of side plates were responsible for holding the digital numerals in between them.

The “Pulsar” manufactured by the Hamilton Watch Company was the very first wrist-worn watch to show the time digitally. A red colored LED display was actually utilized by this particular 18-carat-gold cased timepiece to inform the time to its user in clean and crisp digits by simply pushing a button and its price was a cool $2,100. Until the year 1972, the Pulsar wasn’t available commercially due to teething problems; however, when it was finally released it caused many individuals to believe that it was the end for the traditional dial face watches featuring mechanical movements.

The only issue which was confronted by the Pulsar had been the hefty price tag even though it can be argued that in comparison to its amazing features and appearance, it was not that much. However, a plastic-strapped model which was marketed for only $20 in 1975 was introduced for those individuals who didn’t prefer the idea of investing so much money. In fact, the price even dropped to as low as $10 soon afterward.

The advancement in the digital watches continued for the next 30 years and it saw the replacement of light-emitting diodes with the usage of liquid crystal displays in the early part of the 1970s. A lot of amazing innovations had been incorporated into this digital display throughout the 1980s which consisted of various devices like calculators, thermometers, language translators and also certain miniature TV models.

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Wrist Watches

Over the centuries clocks are used as a status symbol by those that wear them. Their precision, elegance, and convenience are just some the attributes that clocks and watches represent. Often they are bought purely for his or her beautiful looks. And at different times they’re bought because of their technical attributes like being precise to the last second or maybe millisecond. This is what makes clocks and watches, therefore, collectible, and in some cases, they can command high sums of cash.

Whether you collect the new high precision watches or ones that come from a past era, the very fact is that over the years this hobby has become a high turnover business. And collecting watches is in a very heap of circles thought to be a wise investing.

At the start of the last century the clocks that were available for men or ladies were firstly pocket clocks, and then clocks that held by a pendant connected to the lining of jackets or corsets. The appearance of war, industrialization, and the development of the game activities, brought over new trends that extended to not only the approach we dressed but conjointly how we have a tendency to carried our clocks.

It’s said that it was a nanny who invented wrist watches at around the top of the nineteenth century, who fastened a clock around her wrist by using a silk band. The 1st watches to be made after all smaller models of pocket clocks that were fitted with a leather strap. Once this product hit the market newer styles started to be created based around this same concept.

It had been Louis Cartier who first made the sort of watches we see these days when he created a watch for a flying pioneer hero by the name Santos Dumont. By 1911 this same type of watch was on general sale. That same sort of watch became the blueprint of what wristwatches seem to like to this day.
Soon once the design of wrist “clocks” began to diversify aloof from the classic spherical shape that had been stylish up until that point. From the Cartier classical wrist watch, other makes of watch started to emerge that were characterized by their form. Movado was the perfect example of those new designs when it came out with the “Polyplan” shaped watch. Then came the famously and cryptically known as “clock reference n. 1593” by Patek Philippe which was an oblong formed watch.

From 1913 onwards additional and a lot of watches started to be developed in all shapes and designs. From the “gondola” watch of Patek Phillipe to Louis Cartier’s’ “Tank”; named so as a result of it was inspired by the form of English armored cars of the time. These are watches which are very abundant sought after. There were alternative numerous watch manufacturers like Audemars Piguet, Vacheron Constantin who together with Patek Philippe and Cartier came out with many alternative designs that added other options to the watches like lunar phases, month and day most of which are found in stylish watches currently.
Needless to say, we tend to could not mention wrist watches while not mentioning the most famous of all of them: the Rolex watch.

In the 1920s Rolex debuted in the planet of wrist watches with the elegant Rolex Prince and its revolutionary “dual time” feature created famous for having the “seconds sector” larger than that of the minutes. At the identical time Jaeger Le Coultre made an excellent more advanced piece known as the “Reverse,” also terribly revolutionary in that it may be turning a hundred and eighty degrees inside its case, so protecting the crystal and dial. It became incredibly fashionable and was only prevented from achieving even bigger success by the recession of the Thirties and the arrival of world war a pair of.

These early watches of the 1910s to Nineteen Thirties are what outline all the makes of watches that we have a tendency to see and wear these days. This short article has only scratched the surface of what’s a very vast subject that has many new watchmakers with numerous and revolutionary styles. However, it is manufacturers like Rolex, Cartier, Jaeger Le Coultre and the others mentioned that are amongst the foremost valuable and collectible, and should you ever be thus lucky to get one then build positive you droop on to it – preferably to your wrist.

 

 

Pocket watches

Before wristwatches became ubiquitous in our society, pocket watches were the standard for personal timekeeping. The first pocket watch is thought to have been made in Germany towards the end of the fifteenth century. Bearing a close resemblance to the traditional clock, early pocket watches operated in very much the same manner as their clock cousins.

A deviation from traditional clock designs, pocket watches used the combination of a mainspring, hairspring and a balance wheel. This is in contrast to traditional clock designs that used a swinging pendulum and counter weights.

Like today’s wristwatches, pocket watches consist of two main components, the inner works and a metal case. Many different metals were used for early pocket watch cases including gold and silver. The case was usually of a two piece clamshell design. The cases of early watches were impervious to dirt and moisture, which meant the watches, needed a good bit regular cleaning. As time went on, other less expensive metals were used for case works including mild steel and pot metal.

The inner works of the early pocket watch contained a number of gears and wheels held in place between two metal plates. The lower plate or pillar plate rests next to the dial while the upper plate might have come in two pieces though the best made watches utilized a single piece upper plate. The plates were precisely drilled and bored to hold the other components in the proper place. To prevent wear of the moving parts, hard gemstones were used with the moving pegs or axles. There were four wheels in the works known as the barrel wheel, the first wheel, the second wheel and the third wheel. The barrel wheel is used as the attachment for the mainspring.

The motion is transmitted by the uncoiling of the spring and is regulated by the escapement that is kept moving by the combined action of the mainspring and the hairspring providing an oscillating movement. The wheel that has sixty gear teeth around the circumference engages the escapement wheel and transmits motion to the minute hand. It also meshes into the pinion of the center wheel that transmits motion to the hour hand. Movement is controlled by a lever that is connected to the hairspring. By moving the lever to the left or the right, the tension of the hairspring is increased or reduced.

The plates of the works were made from plate stock of steel or brass and would go through a series of machining operations that would include being placed on a pantograph machine which would exactly copy dimensions from a master part to the part being machined. After machining, the plates would be polished using several types of abrasive materials like emery. Gemstones like garnet, rubies, sapphires and diamond. Garnets would be cut with diamond points into tiny disks and would then be set in tiny plates of gold hence marks The beginning of mass production watches.

The intricate process of assembly the works required precisely made screws and other components that would often be plated or heat treated by hand. The small gears were stamped from brass using very precisely made dies and springs were formed from fine spring wire.

Dial faces were similarly stamped out of a base metal, enameled and the markings stenciled in place and the dial would be fired again. Once fully assembled, the finished watch was subjected to cold temperatures of around forty degrees Fahrenheit and then exposed to higher temperatures up to around one hundred degrees Fahrenheit. This process was undoubtedly used to test the watch in different temperature extremes to ensure consistent operation.

Like countless other consumer products, the way in which modern wrist watches are manufactured has undergone incredible changes since the Industrial Revolution that broke during the turn of twentieth century. This important period in world history ushered in entirely new ways to mass produce products for a growing world population. In every facet of manufacturing there were incredible technological advances that improved efficiencies and helped reduce production costs.

Most of us have heard about the way Henry Ford changed the way automobiles were built by developing the production line assembly method. Cars would constantly roll off the Ford assembly line, as workers would fit various parts to the chassis in a precise order and within a predetermined time. What few of us think about are the other changes that made this type manufacturing operation possible. Critical to the success of the mass production line was the development of standardized parts, components that are nearly identical to each other.

Prior to the development of mass production assembly lines, most mechanical assemblies, including watches were built from components that were made individually most often by different producers. This meant that very often, parts from one machine be it a car, locomotive or sewing machine, could be not be used on another machine.

As other watch producers adopted the practice of parts standardization and integrated quality control, the reliability of wrist watches was greatly increased. The use of standardized components meant that those parts that subject to wear did so in more consistent and predictable way, requiring far less maintenance and repair than those timepieces assembled as one of kind items.

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Brief History of the Watch

If we look the brief history of the watch, it can go back as far as 1500 B.C. One may say timekeeping is one of the oldest human inventions. They would even consider timekeeping to be one of our most precious possessions.

The oldest existing sun-dial can be found in Egypt, but the first timepiece that was transportable was actually produced in Italy. The main problem of the portable timekeeping device was the lack of power necessary to keep it running. They had timepieces that used weights in order to function but this method defeated purpose of being portable. Around 1675 B.C., the development of the balance spring changed timekeeping by taking its accuracy to another level: the second hand was added to the watch. Looking at its history, you can see that all cultures had a hand in the development of the timepiece we know today. We can see that there are many types of styles as well as various methods used to power each.

The history of the Egyptians tells us that they were the first to use a pole or column type device to tell roughly the time of the day. This was the first use of the sundial. This device was used only ten hours in a day due to the nature of the sun and it was ultimately not accurate as it could only tell the time when there was sunlight. The Egyptians were also believed to be one of the first to design the water clock, yet the Chinese took this idea and improved its design.

In China around 200 B.C., the Chinese took the developments of the Egyptian water clock and enhanced the precision of its initial design and capabilities. Due to weather conditions, the water tower would not work properly in the cold. This tower stood around 33 feet tall or ten meters in height.

Hourglasses were also believed to be designed primarily by the Ancient Egyptians. It has a very simple design, but some people still use it today for cooking or to measure time in recreational activities such as Scrabble and Cranium. The design of an hourglass requires one to take a cylindrical piece of glass and to taper it in the center. Then, one should place a specific amount of sand in the glass, close off the top and the bottom, and then simply flip the new contraption. This will start the hourglass’ function of timing the events that one wishes to measure.

If we look at the time, early mechanical clocks with escapements were developed by a mathematician in China in 8th century B.C. Yet, the earliest mechanical clock makers were Christian monks. These were used for religious purposes, as religious ceremonies and daily prayer needed to be regulated by time. The necessity of timekeeping for religious purposes greatly affected the demand for technological improvements in timepieces. Mechanical timepieces of the past revolutionize the watches that we wear today.

From the timepieces of the past, we have evolved to produce self-winding time pieces that run strictly on the crown of the watch being spun. Once that method became popular, a new mechanism was designed that included a rotating rotor that brings tension to springs as one moves their arms which then enables the watch to function.

As we see today, Citizen is one of the producers that use solar panels in watches, which limit battery usage in timepieces. Another company, Seiko, has kinetic movement which is similar in design to the automatic which has the rotor that generates energy into rechargeable batteries.

Atomic clocks, which were invented in 1949, are the most accurate timekeeping mechanisms in the world. It is said to be within the 30 billionths of a second in accuracy. The first was displayed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. As we can see, the methods used to tell time have changed as new improvements in technology are made.

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